Clean Space - Developer's Worst Enemy
Whether you’re a game developer, or write software for large corporate enterprises, there is one frustration we all share. The end user always finds a way break our software, or find a way to make it behave strangely. It’s never the user’s fault, our failings in UI/UX design, our missing restraints and misunderstanding of user intent all point to the developer being at fault. Of course, this only makes the situation all the more frustrating.
Image from 9gag
In this article, I’m going to examine a user story for Clean Space, which I hope will demonstrate how much thought should be put into these scenarios and provide ample hints regarding game content.
The example we’re going to look at today is pretty simple, on the face at least.
As a player of Clean Space
I want to be able to name my spacecraft
So that other players can recognise my vehicle
Easy. Just store some names in a database somewhere, track it against an entity ID of some kind, display it in the UI. Job done, right?
Certainly, I could take the above approach. In fact, many might argue I should take that approach and iteratively improve upon the design as further requirements crop up. However, for the sake of pragmatism, a software developer will often find themselves trying to walk the thin line of balancing naivety versus future proofing. Both are equally bad for a product.
Fortunately, I have a fair amount of knowledge to draw upon from my commercial experience here, so the first thing to do before writing a single line of code, is start fleshing out the requirements. I have to constantly swap between my Product Owner and Developer hats given that this is a one-man-team for now. However, let’s step through each of the requirements which, after hours of heated debate infront of a mirror, I’ve managed to agree with myself.
We start by getting the seemingly obvious ones out of the way. Being technically minded, the most immediate constraint that comes to mind are whether vehicle names should be unique. This begs the question, what should we do when a name is not unique? I could of course tell the user “tough luck, that name has been used”, but I can think of several cases where that would be a shoddy experience, at best, for the end user. Conversely, I could have no unique constraints at all. However, the product owner in me feels like offering unique identities to players improves immersion and might introduce interesting mechanics. Examining these cases can be laborious, but in doing so we should discover features we hadn’t previously considered and can decide whether or not those features should be included.
Product Owners I’ve worked with can attest to the fact that I often play devil’s advocate during sprint planning sessions. They’ve come to understand (I hope!) that I don’t question the stories so pedantically as any attempt of malice, simply as a matter of professionalism. I’m not trying to complicate things, I’m trying to offer considerations and side effects that may have been overlooked. Whether they are addressed or not is a question for the product owners, but as someone that takes pride in my code, I need to consider all the states my software might be exposed to. By examining these cases I can try to ensure my code doesn’t collapse upon itself the second it’s exposed to an end user. We’ll never foresee all possible eventualities, but that doesn’t mean we shouldn’t give them some thought!
With that in mind, let’s take a look at the requirements, features, and game content we can derive from that simple unique constraint.
1 2 3 4 Scenario: Name is unique Given the name "HMSC Enterprise" has not been used before When a user tries to name their vehicle "HMSC Enterprise" Then the vehicle name "HMSC Enterprise" is allowed to be registered
NB: As I’ve mentioned previously, I’ve tried very hard to distinguish space flight from the traditional naval perspectives that Science-Fiction generally depicts. Therefore, “HMSC” stands for “Her/His Majesty’s Space Craft”, and hopefully no Clean Space article uses the word “ship”.
I like to always start with a golden path requirement, using the simplest possible case in TDD to define some code structure. That code will inevitably change as further requirements are introduced, but I’d rather have something wrong on paper than have nothing at all written down.
It’s important to note that my assertation (the ‘Then’ section of the scenario) does not state that being Unique sets the vehicle’s name; this is on purpose. By trying to leave the scenario open to further requirements when I start, for example, adding in-game costs to name registrations, I don’t need to come back and edit all previous scenarios. This scenario will still hold true, and I can spec the cost requirements in isolation.
With the win scenario out of the way, let’s start examining hiccups in our design.
The next scenario inevitably needs to look at how to handle the case of a vehicle name not being unique. I’ve decided that the name only needs to be unique within the vehicle owner’s faction; it would be daft if I couldn’t register a name because, for example, a faction I’m at war with has already used it. Let’s assume however that the name has been used by someone in our own faction. How should we deal with that?
At this point, I could of course display the typical “Sorry, that name is already used” message, but I’ve decided to introduce a game mechanic to make resolving these conflicts more interesting. These name’s can instead be considered intangible assets held by a player, which can be traded and negotiated. With this in mind, let’s look at a non-unique scenario.
1 2 3 4 5 6 Scenario: Name has been used by same faction without transfer authority Given the name "HMSC Enterprise" has been registered to the "Earth" authorities by the player "Incurus" And "Incurus" has not given authority to use the name "HMSC Enterprise" to "Smudge" When the player "Smudge" tries to name their vehicle "HMSC Enterprise" in the "Earth" authority Then the vehicle name "HMSC Enterprise" is not allowed to be registered And "Smudge" is presented with the option to negotiate with "Incurus" for the name "HMSC Enterprise"
NB: In case you wonder why names are repeated across all the steps, it’s because each line of a scenario is a method call by the test runner. I prefer to have the underlying code work in an almost RESTful manner.
As you can see, there’s a lot of moving parts here. Despite the introduction of additional features, our original scenario still holds true. We’ve managed to introduce these mechanics within the scope of this scenario without defining further complications regarding having multiple “authorities”, nor have we defined how the negotiations should work. This isolation of requirements takes some time to get right and is a little difficult, but compared to constantly changing previous scenarios as behaviour is introduced, it’s worth the effort.
All of this might seem a lot of work for little reward but, in my opinion, this is what is required in order to defeat the nefarious end user! However, some end users are less easily swayed.
I’m old enough (just about) to remember a world without the internet. For all the benefits the age of information has brought about us, it’s hard not to reflect upon how people have changed. Given the premise of free speech and the physical disconnect of communications, not to mention the seeming anonymity those disconnects imply, things like bullying, trolling and all manner of malevolence seems to have taken hold. This hostility is painted with a pretty broad brush, so software developers not only have to consider the security of their products, but also the impact users may have upon each other.
I won’t go into any detail regarding Clean Space security practices except to assure you that they are both present, and at the forefront of development considerations. However, we can discuss game design intended to protect users from one another.
Some people just enjoy annoying, angering, and abusing others. Personally, I think it’s a despicable hobby, but it’s one we can no more avoid than ignore. An increasing number of games seem to be incorporating report mechanics that allow players to notify the developers when something is awry, which is on some level, a type of community moderation. However, every software developer has come across, if not used extensively, the services of Stack Overflow. This is the epitome of community moderation.
For those that aren’t aware of the Stack Exchange mechanics, they are in essence:
- Each User is assigned a reputation.
- User reputation is displayed publicly.
- User’s can increase their reputation by moderating content.
- User’s can lose reputation if their content is flagged.
- Content that has been flagged is not shown to most users.
- Increased reputation unlocks further rewards.
There’s a bit more to it than that, but that covers the basics. It’s an incredibly useful tool because, especially given the site’s traffic, there is no need to maintain (or pay for) teams of moderators. The users manage themselves and the content of the site.
Whilst Clean Space will never draw more than a tiny fraction of that traffic, every aspect of user input is going to be subject to community moderation. The time spent on providing these features can be significant, but compared to the ever increasing amount of time that would be required to moderate content, it’s a price I’m more than willing to pay. Hopefully you can see where I’m going with this, but let’s get back onto the subject of naming spacecraft.
I mentioned before that registering a vehicle name would incur an in-game cost. I’m no more an expert on economy than I am on celestial mechanics, but my limited understanding of the subject and observations of Eve Online, which is a premiere example of a virtual economy, means I spend plenty of time considering the ramifications of in-game transactions. The subject will require several articles unto itself in the future, so for now I’ll keep to a brief summary.
The cost of registering a name is not simply intended as a gold sink. The best way to encourage players to perform tasks such as content moderation is to offer an incentive. In Clean Space, there can be considerable amounts of time spent doing nothing whilst a spacecraft travels vast distances. To make the game interesting, I need to provide ample distractions. I could of course use some form of mini-game but, it makes a great deal more sense to incentivise these maintenance tasks and keep the game running smoothly.
Most interactions that require server-side computing in Clean Space entail an in-game cost, and these costs can be increased so that portions of the amount can be offered to moderators. Whilst such mechanics are atypical in game design, they are common place in the real world. Consider for example getting a new Passport; we pay for someone to process our application and maintain a central authority. By providing these features, Clean Space can provide an immersive and self-moderating gaming experience, and by controlling or monitoring the influx of game currency, I can protect and predict server-side resource requirements.
Therefore, there are at least 3-steps to not only registering a vehicle name, but a great many user interactions in Clean Space:
- The name must pass system validation (be unique or have negotiated a title transfer).
- The player must have sufficient funds to place into escrow.
- The name must have passed community moderation.
These 3 high-level requirements help to bring about consistent mechanics and UI designs. Due to the vast distances involved in space, most interactions entail delays as information is transmitted from one place to another. Whilst this can be a nuisance at times, it means introducing eventual consistency to other areas of the game such as name registration don’t stand out, and offer all the technical benefits of distributed computing.
I started this article by explaining how much of a nuisance users can be. Whilst that may still hold true in the case of trolls and hackers, look at all the game content we’ve derived from these considerations. I know people will try (and in some cases succeed) to bypass these constraints, but we’ll have headed off a great number of them at the pass. More importantly though, we’ve introduced numerous features to improve the experience of users who just want to get on and play the game.
If names are waiting too long for community moderation, or if there are a large number of names awaiting moderation, there are several mechanisms available to the system to rectify this automatically. For example, the cost of registration can be increased to deter frivolous requests, which in turn can contribute to greater rewards for moderators. Or the in-game government can boost the reward pool from other reserves. If all else fails, the system can send me a text message at 2AM telling me I need to moderate the content myself.
This autonomy gives Clean Space the feel of a living, breathing ecosystem. I pay the cost upfront so that, unlike so many early access games I see released nowadays, the cost of ongoing maintenance doesn’t hamper ongoing development. These thought processes don’t just apply to game design. The very point of Clean Code is to front the costs so that the lifecycle of the product doesn’t result in dimishing returns, and is from where the name Clean Space is derived.